Women in India: Facts in Figures [Gandhimathi, Ekta, Madurai]

• Sex Ratio 933
• Literacy Male 75.85
• Literacy Female 54.16
• 1 to 3% of executive positions only occupied by women
• 9 % of women in execute bodies of political parties
• 3 % of women as Supreme Court Judges
• 7 % of women in civil services
• 6 % women in trade unions
• Infant mortality is 67 for boys and 78 for girls
• 40 % women are assaulted by their intimate partners
• 65 % women reported some kind of abuse
• Rural women are paid 60% of what men are paid
• Urban women are paid 80% of what men are paid
• Less than 50% of the women are involved in decisions related to their own health care
• A woman is molested in the country every 26 minutes
• A rape occurs every 34 minutes
• Every 42 minutes, an incident of sexual harassment takes place
• Every 43 minutes, a woman is kidnapped
• Every 93 minutes, a woman is killed
• Every 102 minutes, a dowry death
• One out of every three women has experienced violence in marital life
• Physical abuse of Indian women is high ranging from 22-60 percent
• 71.5 percent increase in cases of torture and dowry deaths from 1991-1995
• 45 percent of Indian women are slapped, kicked or beaten by their husbands
• India also had highest rate of violence during pregnancy - 50 percent were kicked, beaten or hit when pregnant
• 74.8 percent of women who reported violence have attempted to commit suicide
• Highest rate of sexual violence were among highly educated men
• 32% - with zero education, 42% - primary school education, 57%-high school and college education
• 35% sexual violence by low economic groups and 61 % among the highest income groups
• Between 1980 and 1990 there was an increase of nearly 74% in crimes against women
• Between 1993 and 2000 there was an increase of nearly 150% in crimes against women
• Only 22% of women in rural India were recorded as workers
• Only 32% of the female labour force of the total labour force is accounted for
• In rural India, agriculture and allied industrial sectors employ as much as 89.5% of the total female labour
• There seems to be a consensus that higher female mortality between ages one and five and high maternal mortality rates result in a deficit of females in the population. Chatterjee (1990) estimates that deaths of young girls in India exceed those of young boys by over 300,000 each year, and every sixth infant death is specifically due to gender discrimination." Of the 15 million baby girls born in India each year, nearly 25 percent will not live to see their 15th birthday.
• The most extreme expression A 1976 amendment to the Child Marriage Restraint Act raised the minimum legal age for marriage from 15 to 18 for young women and from 18 to 21 for young men. However, in many rural communities, illegal child marriages are still common. In some rural areas, nearly half the girls between 10 and 14 are married. Because there is pressure on women to prove their fertility by conceiving as soon as possible after marriage, adolescent marriage is synonymous with adolescent childbearing: roughly 10-15 percent of all births take place to women in their teens of the preference for sons is female infanticide and sex-selective abortion

• A rough estimate of sex-specific abortions and female infanticide together has been obtained by using indirect demographic techniques on census data, indicating that there have been about 1.2 million `missing girls' in India during the decade 1981-1991

Source:
1. Excerpts from study on impact of globalization on women – study by mapovi
2. Human development report of Tamilnadu –2003
3. Indian census – 2001
4. Crime Against women – DIG report 2004

Report by:
Ms.Gandhimathi